Total ice cover in sea (kg) over past 100 years plotted as time series
For this sub-challenge not enough data was available to complete it. The choice was made to focus on sea ice extent and sea ice thickness instead of cover in kg. The data on this topic is widely spread and freely available.
Major gaps in this challenge include information on ice cover mass.
For an interactive map with data on sea ice please go to http://www.emodnet-physics.eu/map/ and click on “CMEMS – Arctic sea ice”.
Figure 1: Sea Ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere in January, from 1979 to 2016, in million square km. Datasource: NSIDC.
Figure 2: Sea Ice concentration from 1850 to 2010. Datasource: NODC.
Figure 3: Arctic September sea-ice extent from observations (thick red line) and 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) models, together with the multi-model ensemble mean (solid black line) and one standard deviation range of model estimates (dotted black line). Models with more than one ensemble member are indicated with an asterisk. Note that these are September means, not yearly minima. (Adapted from Stroeve and others, 2007; courtesy of J. Stroeve.) (source: Kattsov et al. 2010)
Figure 4: Reconstruction of Arctic summer sea ice variation. (a) Forty-year smoothed reconstructed late-summer Arctic sea ice extent, with 95% confidence interval, and yearly ice duration in the (b) Chukchi Sea and (c) Fram strait. (Source: Walsh 2013)
For this sub-challenge, the following sources were used:
- Kattsov, V.M., v.E. Ryabinin, J. E. Overland, M.C. Serreze, M. Vibeck, J.E. Walsh, W. Meier, X. Zhang, 2010. Arctic sea-ice change: a grand challenge of climate science. Journal of Glaciology 200(56): 1115 – 1121. http://www.igsoc.org:8080/journal/56/200/j10j199.pdf
- Walsh, J.E. 2013. Melting ice: What is happening to Arctic sea ice, and what does it mean for us? Oceanography 26(2):171–181. http://tos.org/oceanography/assets/docs/26-2_walsh.pdf
- Data on Sea Ice and Ice Sheets is freely available from the National Snow and Ice Center. They offer data from (a.o) NOAA and NASA in formats such as text files, Shapefiles and PNG. http://nsidc.org/data/search/#keywords=sea+ice/sortKeys=score,,desc/facetFilters=%257B%257D/pageNumber=1/itemsPerPage=25
- National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) - http://nsidc.org/data/g10010
- Ocean Climate Laboratory (OCL) of National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/3M_HEAT_CONTENT/basin_data.html)